Net daily sentiment ranged from -38.13 for Remdesivir on Wednesday the 21st to 16.7 for Moderna vaccine on Monday the 19th.
The sentiment for each tweet is scored from -1 (most negative) to +1 (most positive) using VADER sentiment analysis. Net sentiment is calculated by summing the sentiment across all tweets for a given day and/or category, then normalizing the score by the number of tweets.
Medical conditions from the MedDRA dictionary
Infection was the most frequently observed medical condition mentioned. Infection had the highest overall net sentiment of 8.29. Poisoning had the lowest net sentiment this week (-56.15).
MedDra is a standardized medical terminology developed by the International Council for Harmonization Cross-referencing tweets against this list is a starting point for identifying medical conditions mentioned in tweets.
Cross-referencing the MedDRA dictionary by sentiment and topic
There were 166 tweets with an strong positive sentiment. The top 10 most frequent medical conditions mentioned within these tweets were (1) Infection, (2) Fall, (3) Flu, (4) Coldness, Cold, (5) Sickness, (6) Blindness, Blind, (7) Cancer, (8) Arthritis, (9) Fever, (10) Worry. Of these terms, Blindness, Blind (n=5), Arthritis (n=4), Fever (n=4) were not in the top 10 most frequent terms across all tweets.
There were 330 tweets with an strong negative sentiment. The top 10 most frequent medical conditions mentioned within these tweets were (1) Flu, (2) Sickness, (3) Poisoning, (4) Cancer, (5) Fall, (6) Worry, (7) Infection, (8) Forgetfulness, (9) Pneumonia, (10) Pain. Of these terms, Pain (n=10) were not in the top 10 most frequent terms across all tweets.
The 25 most important words within positive tweets (compared to negative and neutral) tweets are shown in the treemap below. The size of each box represents the weighted score of each word. The word “mutat” within the search for “Monoclonal antibodies” had the highest overall weight. When the words are summed for each topic, Ivermectin had the highest overall weight.
The 25 most important words within negative tweets (compared to positive and neutral) tweets are shown in the treemap below. The word “legal” within the search for “Pfizer vaccine” had the highest overall weight. When the words are summed for each topic, “Pfizer vaccine” had the highest overall weight within negative tweets.
This analysis of words evaluates the stemmed version of words using the Snowball algorithm. By stemming words, words with similar meaning, such as pain, painful & pained, are grouped together as simply “pain”.
Beta: text classification
Tweets that describe adverse events/side effects (first person point of view)
|tweet||search topic(s)||medical condition(s) mentioned|
|I hope you’re better soon. I got the Pfizer vaccine when it first came out. I didn’t get any boosters because I had 3 days of side effects after each round of the vaccine. I got COVID back in January. Took me a week to get rid of it completely. Worst part was my sore throat.||pfizer vaccine||Sore throat|
|I had no reaction to previous boosters and a very mild fluish feeling after the second part of the Pfizer vaccine. This new booster made me feel like I was coming down with the flu the next day – achy, headache, chills – but only for a few hours. Then I was fine.||pfizer vaccine||Chills, Flu, Headache|
|Just had the new Pfizer vaccine this morning. No side effects so far.
Had mild side effects with 1st & 2nd (headache, pain @ injection site, joint aches & fatigue) but nothing from 3-5.
|pfizer vaccine||Ache, Fatigue, Headache, Joint ache, Pain|
|_Browne I’m the evidence. I had Covid and then after I took 2 doses of ivermectin, I felt great. My energy was back, was symptoms were gone. My husband got Covid. Trouble breathing, lethargic. After the first dose, he could breathe easier, 2nd dose, back to normal.||ivermectin||Lethargic|
|I’m at 11 months of chronic insomnia. It started the day of my very first Pfizer vaccine. I’ve had multiple treatments and tests, and nothing helps. If I can fall asleep, I’m asleep 2 hrs max.||pfizer vaccine||Fall, Insomnia|
|I am recovering from Covid, monoclonal antibodies last Monday, rapid improvement post infusion, but blunted taste/smell. Today, febrile, aches, congestion,& productive cough||monoclonal antibodies||Ache, Coughing, Cough|
|I got it a couple of days ago. And got the flu shot at the same time. The arm with the Pfizer vaccine was a bit sore but nothing else||pfizer vaccine||Flu|
|I’m a huge believer in vaccines, twice vaxxed and boostered. After my 2nd Moderna vaccine I had all the symptoms of a simple stroke. I woke up, collapsed and broke the table. In 2016 I was hit by a car and have a minor TBI. What scares me is having the same reaction||moderna vaccine||Stroke|
|The side-effects from this Moderna vaccine are horrendous. Splitting headache, nausea, fatigue… I think that’s me signing off for the day hoping I feel slightly better for my birthday tomorrow!||moderna vaccine||Fatigue, Headache, Nausea|
|I had it twice… in my 60s, Covid “Classic” – was weird, but not very sick.
Covid 2nd time, was when Covid Inc. was pushing “Omicron”, if there was such a thing.
24 hours of chills and body aches, then 5 or 6 days of bad head cold. 2nd time, took Ivermectin first 5 days
|ivermectin||Ache, Chills, Coldness, Cold, Sickness|
|Not sure what others have experienced, but the latest Moderna vaccine is seriously kicking my ass.
Fever, full body muscle pains, and super fatigue, just twice as bad as the other boosters.
But would still rather experience this, then the full blown thing.
|moderna vaccine||Fatigue, Fever, Muscle pain, Pain|
|I know because nothing changed about my diet/health within the couple weeks after my Pfizer vaccine. I’m normal weight for my height, have low blood pressure, normal cholesterol, and within a couple weeks of the vaccine, my blood was thick like pancake syrup, nearly coagulated…||pfizer vaccine||Low blood pressure|
|I have Covid pneumonia. It was horrible. I got the monoclonal antibodies. Are they still doing that? I had it in both lungs. It took a long time to recover. I hope you feel better soon. I am getting my new booster this week.||monoclonal antibodies||Pneumonia|
|_in_ma I had 2 Moderna vaccine and 2 Moderna Boosters. Each one knocked me out the next day…tired, chills, headache/minor issues. Had COVID after the fourth shot, fever, tired, worst sore throat of my life…not easy but it didn’t put me in the hospital! Going to wait on the next one||moderna vaccine||Chills, Fever, Sore throat|
|I got the third Moderna vaccine for COVID-19 yesterday at last. So, because of the side effects, I have a headache, and my left upper arm swells up a little from this afternoon till now.
They are not so bad compared to those of the second vaccination.
|moderna vaccine||Headache, Swelling|
|eye Spouse had terrible headaches for months after the Moderna vaccine. Doc gave her a amitryptaline and sleep improved and headaches went away.||moderna vaccine||Headache|
|My mom and oldest kiddo got boosted last weekend with the bivalent Pfizer vaccine. Daughter had a sore arm and a fever for an hour after she woke up. She had one Tylenol dose that morning and then she was back to herself, and she didn’t need another dose.||pfizer vaccine||Fever|
|I’m so sorry this is your experience. I had COVID in March 2021. I’d only had the first shot of the Moderna vaccine.
I have autoimmune disorders (beforeCOVID). I was sick as a dog for SIX weeks, & I’ve been dealing with long COVID since then.
But yeah, it’s “just a cold.” <U+0001F644>
|moderna vaccine||Coldness, Cold, Sickness|
|My doctor prescribed me ivermection and hydroxychloroquine for my vaccine injury. It cleared up a lot of my smaller reactions like brain fog, headaches, blood pressure spikes, light sensitivity and neuropathy. I had NONE of those pre Pfizer. I also have been exposed to covid||hydroxychloroquine||Headache|
|_Bone I was diagnosed with vasculitis within the first month of my first COVID infection. I was prescribed hydroxychloroquine to control the immune response and have taken it ever since. I started nattokinase and lumbrokinase while I had a picc line and never stopped taking them.||hydroxychloroquine||Infection, Vasculitis|
This classifier was trained on a set of tweets manually reviewed and tagged. The classifier was trained using GloVe, a pretrained word embedding layer.
Webpage created in R version 4.1.0 (2021-05-18) and R Studio (Version 1.4.1717) using the following packages: plotly, kableExtra, formattable, treemap, and wordpressr.
- C. Sievert. Interactive Web-Based Data Visualization with R, plotly, and shiny. Chapman and Hall/CRC Florida, 2020.
- Hao Zhu (2021). kableExtra: Construct Complex Table with ‘kable’ and Pipe Syntax. R package version 1.3.4.
- Kun Ren and Kenton Russell (2021). formattable: Create ‘Formattable’ Data Structures. R package version 0.2.1.
- Martijn Tennekes (2021). treemap: Treemap Visualization. R package version 2.4-3.
- Simit Patel (2021). wordpressr: An API Wrapper for WordPress Site APIs. R package version 0.1.0.
- WHO COVID-19 Dashboard. Geneva: World Health Organization, 2020. Available online: https://covid19.who.int/ (last cited: Oct 04, 2022).
- Hutto, C.J. & Gilbert, E.E. (2014). VADER: A Parsimonious Rule-based Model for Sentiment Analysis of Social Media Text. Eighth International Conference on Weblogs and Social Media (ICWSM-14). Ann Arbor, MI, June 2014.