Covid-19 in the news this week
- Moderna seeks approval for a 2nd COVID-19 booster shot for adults
- A surge in COVID-19 spurs new lockdowns in China’s cities
Net daily sentiment ranged from -37.79 for Remdesivir on Saturday the 19th to 20.23 for Johnson and johnson vaccine on Friday the 18th.
The sentiment for each tweet is scored from -1 (most negative) to +1 (most positive) using VADER sentiment analysis. Net sentiment is calculated by summing the sentiment across all tweets for a given day and/or category, then normalizing the score by the number of tweets.
Medical conditions from the MedDRA dictionary
Infection was the most frequently observed medical condition mentioned. Infection had the highest overall net sentiment of -4.5. Fear had the lowest net sentiment this week (-46.76).
MedDra is a standardized medical terminology developed by the International Council for Harmonization Cross-referencing tweets against this list is a starting point for identifying medical conditions mentioned in tweets.
Cross-referencing the MedDRA dictionary by sentiment and topic
Positive tweets: There were 205 tweets with an strong positive sentiment. The top 10 most frequent medical conditions mentioned within these tweets were (1) Infection, (2) Sickness, (3) Blindness, Blind, (4) Cancer, (5) Flu, (6) MS, (7) Poisoning, (8) Fever, (9) Forgetfulness, (10) Coughing, Cough. Of these terms, MS (n=7), Fever (n=6), Forgetfulness (n=6), Coughing, Cough (n=4) were not in the top 10 most frequent terms across all tweets.
Negative tweets: There were 516 tweets with an strong negative sentiment. The top 10 most frequent medical conditions mentioned within these tweets were (1) Infection, (2) Cancer, (3) Sickness, (4) Tinnitus, (5) Migraine, (6) Fear, (7) Flu, (8) Coughing, Cough, (9) Worry, (10) Poisoning. Of these terms, Coughing, Cough (n=18) were not in the top 10 most frequent terms across all tweets.
The 25 most important words within positive tweets (compared to negative and neutral) tweets are shown in the treemap below. The size of each box represents the weighted score of each word. The word “got” within the search for “Ivermectin” had the highest overall weight. When the words are summed for each topic, Ivermectin had the highest overall weight.
The 25 most important words within negative tweets (compared to positive and neutral) tweets are shown in the treemap below. The word “advers” within the search for “Pfizer vaccine” had the highest overall weight. When the words are summed for each topic, “Pfizer vaccine” had the highest overall weight within negative tweets.
This analysis of words evaluates the stemmed version of words using the Snowball algorithm. By stemming words, words with similar meaning, such as pain, painful & pained, are grouped together as simply “pain”.
Beta: text classification
Tweets that describe adverse events/side effects (first person point of view)
|tweet||search topic(s)||medical condition(s) mentioned|
|In the months immediately following covid I had random fever spikes, icepick headaches, chest pain, palpitations, cough and fatigue. The pfizer vaccine thankfully erased those almost completely. I do still occasionally have days I feel like a bus hit me. I’m grateful to be 95%.||pfizer vaccine||Chest pain, Coughing, Cough, Fatigue, Fever, Headache, Pain, Palpitations|
|I had a blood clot in my brain after taking the 2nd Pfizer vaccine. I never had such pain in my head before, it makes you think you need to go to the hospital. I am still having painful headaches like something is wrong, but it’s not as bad as before. I’m devastated. Fk Pfizer!||pfizer vaccine||Headache, Pain|
|I haven’t had COVID-19 but two days after my first Pfizer vaccine I developed severe inflammatory symptoms. Confusion, disoriented, fever, brain hurts, eyes hurt etc. got worse after 2nd shot. I have to take 8 antihistamines a day just to be able to sit on the couch all day.||pfizer vaccine||Confused, Confusion, Fever|
|I don’t feel major side-effects from the second Covid-19 Pfizer vaccine. All I felt was nausea for a few minutes the following day, but I did not throw up.||pfizer vaccine||Nausea|
|My puppins had his boosters yesterday. Parvovirus, distemper, and rabies. He was so sick after. Having Pfizer vaccine, I get ickiness/body hurts feels like. Had to go back to the vet for meds to make him feel better. never want my baby not feeling good. Love your babies! <U+2764><U+FE0F><U+2764><U+FE0F><U+2764><U+FE0F>||pfizer vaccine||Sickness|
|I had a hyper response to original C19–kicked most of it out in five days, but I was extra exhausted until I got the Moderna vaccine. So I totally get this.||moderna vaccine||Exhaustion|
|I’ve had asthma all my life. Ever since I can remember. I wake up every night gasping for air And need for my inhaler. Within about two weeks after taking the Pfizer vaccine my asthma completely went away. I no longer need my inhaler. I am glad this vaccine came out!!!||pfizer vaccine||Asthma, Gasping|
|After my 4th #moderna vaccine, I finally got side effects – chills, fever, headache, and injection site pain. For the first three shots, nothing. It started about four hours after the shot and all night – but I’m fine this morning. At least now I know my immune system is working!||moderna vaccine||Chills, Fever, Headache, Injection site pain, Pain|
|I’ve had serious heart palpitations since I took the second Moderna vaccine.||moderna vaccine||Palpitations|
|I took one shot of the J&J vaccine plus three shots of the Moderna mRNA.
So my experience has been nothing more than that of catching a cold. Sneezing, drinking tea, chicken soup, citrus fruits, bundling up and watching Netflix. No fever, no ache. No loss of smell.
|johnson and johnson vaccine||Ache, Coldness, Cold, Fever, Loss of smell, Sneezing|
|I also had long covid symptoms, pretty severe at times…racing elevated heart rate, palpitations, fatigue, headaches. I took ivermectin and NAC. After 2nd day on ivermectin, my heart symptoms stopped and I have continued to get better. Also plantbased diets/green smoothies…1/2||ivermectin||Fatigue, Headache, Palpitations|
|Pfizer vaccine, had severe chills, fever (101), dry heaves, 12 hours after receiving injection. Lasted for 6 miserable hours. Better than getting covid||pfizer vaccine||Chills, Dry heaves, Fever|
|I’m unvaccinated and recently got covid. Had a bit of a scratchy throat and some night sweats and was tired for about 10 days. I’m so glad I took #Ivermectin as it could have been so much worse without it.||ivermectin||Night sweats, Sweating|
|After getting the Moderna vaccine, I began 2 get pain N both hands, fingers locking & numbness a few times. I have arthritis; but this has never happened before. I hope the vaccine wears off & this pain goes away. It never happened before. Wish I hadn’t taken the damned shots.||moderna vaccine||Arthritis, Numbness, Pain|
|_tx I also had a severe reaction 5 days after receiving the Moderna vaccine. Severe joint and muscle pain, numbness in hands. I could barely walk.Blood tests show abnormal inflammatory markers.8 months later, pain is still severe. I wish that I’d never take the vaccine.<U+0001F623>||moderna vaccine||Muscle pain, Numbness, Numbness in hand, Pain|
|So I’ve been breaking out randomly in hives and my lip randomly gets swollen after getting my first dose of the moderna vaccine….||moderna vaccine||Hives|
|Dose and I’ve only ever heard people have mild side effects. Sore arm, fatigue, headache, body aches lasting less than a day. My brother (in his 30’s) got myocarditis from the Pfizer vaccine. It was unpleasant but he fully recovered. When he got covid this year it was mild. (2)||pfizer vaccine||Ache, Fatigue, Headache|
|I only got my first Pfizer vaccine and ended up with slight heart inflammation, nuerological issues, and post viral pots 8 months later. I think I’ll pass.||pfizer vaccine||Inflammation|
|I also had a fever with the second Moderna vaccine but with the third everything went smoothly. Stay strong, Evelyn <U+0001F4AA><U+0001F603>||moderna vaccine||Fever|
|My arthritis has been giving me extreme pain in my hands since taking the Moderna vaccine.||moderna vaccine||Arthritis, Pain|
This classifier was trained on a set of tweets manually reviewed and tagged. The classifier was trained using GloVe, a pretrained word embedding layer.
Webpage created in R version 4.1.0 (2021-05-18) and R Studio (Version 1.4.1717) using the following packages: plotly, kableExtra, formattable, treemap, and wordpressr.
- C. Sievert. Interactive Web-Based Data Visualization with R, plotly, and shiny. Chapman and Hall/CRC Florida, 2020.
- Hao Zhu (2021). kableExtra: Construct Complex Table with ‘kable’ and Pipe Syntax. R package version 1.3.4.
- Kun Ren and Kenton Russell (2021). formattable: Create ‘Formattable’ Data Structures. R package version 0.2.1.
- Martijn Tennekes (2021). treemap: Treemap Visualization. R package version 2.4-3.
- Simit Patel (2021). wordpressr: An API Wrapper for WordPress Site APIs. R package version 0.1.0.
- WHO COVID-19 Dashboard. Geneva: World Health Organization, 2020. Available online: https://covid19.who.int/ (last cited: Mar 22, 2022).
- Hutto, C.J. & Gilbert, E.E. (2014). VADER: A Parsimonious Rule-based Model for Sentiment Analysis of Social Media Text. Eighth International Conference on Weblogs and Social Media (ICWSM-14). Ann Arbor, MI, June 2014.